Plantation forestry in Paraguay emerges

Main Article Content

Robert R. Davis https://orcid.org/0009-0005-2493-4400
Ana Cubas-Báez https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9361-3890
Frederick Cubbage
Bruno Kanieski da Silva https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4007-2717

Keywords

carbon sequestration, deforestation, eucalyptus, forestry, growth rates, investment returns, land distribution, Paraguay, pine, risks, tree planting, trees

Abstract

Over the last two decades, investors in the forestry sector have been increasingly active in Paraguay, establishing tree plantations with the aim of profiting from the burgeoning global demand for wood and fiber. Growth rates for commercial tree species are good to excellent, and the country has over 7.6 million hectares (Mha) of land with high to very high potential for cultivating them. Since 2010, Paraguay’s plantation area has quadrupled to more than 204,631 ha and planting rates accelerated sharply in 2023. This wave of planting and related forest industries is bringing jobs to rural communities and helping to diversify the country’s economy. Despite these positives, plantation forestry in Paraguay faces some hurdles: high transportation costs from this landlocked country to overseas markets, time-consuming bureaucratic processes, and governance issues. Another challenge is mainstreaming plantation-grown wood into the domestic supply chain, especially for fuelwood, one of the most important sources of energy for Paraguayan households and industry. With native wood now in short supply due to decades of heavy deforestation and overcutting, sustainable fuelwood plantations are needed to fill the gap. Major investments are nevertheless moving ahead. A new multibillion-dollar pulp mill under construction, an uptick in tree planting, the resolve to address domestic needs, especially for fuelwood, and decades of experience managing modest-sized plantations suggest that Paraguay’s plantation forestry sector is poised to expand. Bolstering this expansion with environmental and social best practices will help underpin its sustainability over the long term.

Abstract 83 | View Full Text Downloads 0 Download PDF Downloads 16

References

Agencia de Información Paraguaya. 2022. Gobierno otorga a Paracel S.A. la primera licencia para la producción de energía eléctrica. Asunción, Paraguay. https://www.ip.gov.py/ip/gobierno-otorga-a-Paracel S.A.-la-primera-licencia-para-la-produccion-de-energia-electrica/. Accessed on June 10, 2024.

Astarte Capital Partners LLP. 2024. Astarte Capital Partners and SilviPar AB close inaugural Impact Forestry Fund at $325m, well above target. United Kingdom. April 16, 2024. https://www.astartecp.com/news/astarte-capital-partners-and-silvipar-ab-close-inaugural-impact-forestry-fund-325m-well-above. Accessed May 18, 2024.

Beck H, Zimmermann N, McVicar T, Vergopolan N, Berg A, Wood E. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Paraguay at 1-km resolution. Nature Scientici Data. Accessed on June 10, 2024. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214

Besseau P, Graham S, Christophersen, T. (eds.), 2018. Restoring forests and landscapes: the key to a sustainable future. Global Partnership on Forest and Landscape Restoration, Vienna, Austria. https://www.forestlandscaperestoration.org/resources/knowledge/restoring-forests-and-landscapes/. Accessed on June 10, 2024.

Braun A, Grulke M, Ortiz R. 2017. 15 años ForCerPa. UNIQUE. Paraguay: https://www.unique-wood.com/es/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2023/08/15-anos-ForCerPa.pdf. Accessed on August 13, 2023.

Brazilian Tree Industry (IBÁ). 2022. Annual Report 2022. https://iba.org/eng/datafiles/publicacoes/relatorios/relatorio-iba2022-en-2022-12-06-compressed.pdf. Accessed on November 1, 2023.

Brun J. 2021. Sector profile, forestry and floriculture. REDIEX. Asunción, Paraguay. https://www.investinparaguay.com.py/assets/sectores/PERFIL%20SECTOR%20FORESTAL_ingles.pdf. Accessed on August 13, 2023.

Camara Vial Paraguaya. 2023. Paraguay cuenta con más de 78.000 km de caminos. Asunción, Paraguay.
https://cavialpa.org.py/noticia/paraguay-cuenta-con-mas-de-78-000-km-de-caminos/. Accessed on June 10, 2024.

Centro de Estudios Heñoi. n.d.. No son bosques: un modelo antiecolgico de negocio forestal se cierne sobre el Paraguay. https://globalforestcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Arbaro-Paraguay-full-ES.pdf. Accessed on August 13, 2023.

Cervantes AG, Vega Gutierrez PT, Robinson SC. Forest inventories in private and protected areas of Paraguay. Challenges 2023,14,23. Accessed on August 11, 2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/challe14020023

Comité de Sanidad Vegetal del Cono Sur. n.d.a. Listado de plagas presentes en eucalyptus spp. Buenos, Aires, Argentina. http://www.cosave.org/sites/default/files/resoluciones/anexos/Anexo%20Resol%20214_%20Plagas%20presentes%20en%20Eucalyptus%20spp.pdf. Accessed May 18, 2024.

Comité de Sanidad Vegetal del Cono Sur. n.d.b. Acerca del Comité de Sanidad Vegetal. Buenos, Aires, Argentina. http://www.cosave.org/pagina/acerca-de-cosave. Accessed May 18, 2024.

Cubas-Báez A. 2020. Eucalyptus sp. Investment analysis. Memorandum from Cubas-Báez to Fred Cubbage dated Oct. 22, 2020. North Carolina State University. College of Natural Resources. Dept. of Forestry and Environmental Resources.

Cubbage F, Pye J, Holmes TP, Wagner JE. 2000. An economic evaluation of fusiform rust protection research. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 24 [2], 77-85. Accessed June 12, 2024. https://doi.org/10.1093/sjaf/24.2.77

Cubbage F, Rubilar, R, Mac Donagh, P, Kanieski Da Silva B, Bussoni A, Morales, V, Balmelli, G., Lord V, Hernández C, Zhang, P, Ha Tran Thi Thu, Yao, R, Hall, P., Korhonen J, Luis Díaz-Balteiro, Roque Rodríguez-Soalleiro, Davis R, Chudy, R, De La Torre R, Lopera G, Somvang Phimmavong, Garzón, S, and Cubas-Baez A. 2022. Comparative global timber investment costs, returns, and applications, 2020. Journal of Forest Business Research, 1(1), 90-121. Accessed on August 13, 2023. https://doi.org/10.62320/jfbr.v1i1.16

DeSantis D, Elliot L. 2024. Paraguay on track for record soy crop, but low river levels slow exports. April 18, 2024. Reuters.https://www.reuters.com/markets/commodities/paraguay-track-record-soy-crop-low-river-levels-slow-exports-2024-04-18/#:~:text=%22Low%20rivers%20mean%20the%20barges,and%20Cereal%20Exporters%20(CAPECO).
Accessed on May 27, 2024.

Díaz EAB, Coronel RS, Godziewski D. 2013. Consideraciones sobre dos nuevas plagas del euclipto en Paraguay, El psílido de la concha o escudo Gylcaspis Brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) y la chinche marrón Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. Vol. 17, nº 1 (Ago. 2013): 100-10. http://www.faunaparaguay.com/BenitezDiaz17.pdf. Accessed May 18, 2024.

Díaz EAB, Costa VA, De Moraes GJ, Godziewsky D. 2014. First record of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Rhombacus eucalypti Ghosh & Chokrabarti (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Paraguay. Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. Vol. 18, nº 1 (Jun. 2014): 100-100. http://www.faunaparaguay.com/Bol18benitez.pdf. Accessed May 18, 2024.

Dieste A, Noel Cabrera M, Clavijo L, Cassella N. 2018. Analysis of wood products from an added value perspective: The Uruguayan forestry case. In Maderas, Cienc. tecnol. vol.21 no.3 Concepción jul. 2019. Accessed on August 11, 2023. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2019005000303

Dueck N. 2024. (Land Specialist, Fundación IDEAGRO). Personal communication to Alberto Yanosky, Biodiversity Specialist, on June 18, 2024. Paraguay.

Durand-Morat A. 2019. Agricultural production potential in Southern Cone: Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Choices. Quarter 3. http://www.choicesmagazine.org/choices-magazine/theme-articles/theme-overview-the-agricultural-production-potential-of-latin-american-implications-for-global-food-supply-and-trade/agricultural-production-potential-in-southern-cone-argentina-paraguay-and-uruguay. Accessed on February 4, 2024.

Durruty P. 2016. Situación actual de las plantaciones forestales. INFONA. San Lorenzo, Paraguay. https://www.arp.org.py/images/files/12_SituacionactualPF-INFONAfinal.pdf. Accessed May 27, 2024.

Econojournal. 2024. Proyecto Paracel S.A.: Milicic comenzó su primera experiencia en Paraguay. April 11, 2024. https://econojournal.com.ar/2024/04/milicic-comenzo-su-primera-experiencia-en-paraguay/. Accessed on April 16, 2024.

Environmental Justice Atlas. 2023. Monocultivos de eucalipto en San Pedro y Canindeyú, Paraguay. https://es.ejatlas.org/print/eucalyptus-in-paraguay-is-really-fighting-climate-change. Accessed on August 13, 2023.

Euroclima. 2023. Promoción del uso eficiente de la biomasa en Paraguay. Brussels, Belgium. https://www.euroclima.org/promocion-del-uso-eficiente-de-la-biomasa-en-paraguay. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

EUR-LEX. 2023. Regulation (EU) 2023/1115 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 May 2023. Document_32023R1115.https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32023R1115&qid=1687867231461. Accessed on August 16, 2023.

EUWID. 2022. “Paracel S.A. to build new pulp mill in Paraguay” in EUWID Pulp and Paper, July 15 2022. https://www.euwid-paper.com/news/companies/Paracel S.A.-to-build-new-pulp-mill-in-paraguay-200722/. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

EUWID. 2023. “Paracel S.A. moves ahead with preparations for new pulp mill in Paraguay: Construction start to depend on state of financial markets” in EUWID Pulp and Paper, May 31, 2023. https://www.euwid-paper.com/news/companies/Paracel S.A.-moves-ahead-with-preparations-for-new-pulp-mill-in-paraguay-310523/. Accessed on October 11, 2023.

FAO. 1981. Proyecto de evaluación de los recursos forestales tropicales. Los recursos forestales de la America Latina. FAO. Rome, Italy. https://www.fao.org/4/ag293s/ag293s00.htm. Accessed on May 15, 2024.

FAO. 1993. Forest Resources Assessment 1990. Tropical Countries. Forestry Paper No. 112. Rome, Italy. https://www.fao.org/4/t0830e/t0830e00.htm. Accessed on May 15, 2024.

FAO. 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. Forestry Paper No. 140. Rome, Italy. https://www.fao.org/forest-resources-assessment/past-assessments/fra-2000/en/. Accessed on May 15, 2024.

FAO. 2006. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/fra2005/en/. Accessed on April 12, 2023.

FAO. 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. Forestry Paper No. 163. Rome, Italy. https://openknowledge.fao.org/server/api/core/bitstreams/748a4f51-dcd5-49da-a52a-c00ebff17782/content. Accessed on May 15, 2024.

FAO. 2016. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. Desk Reference. Rome, Italy. https://openknowledge.fao.org/server/api/core/bitstreams/5100a18e-1432-42b1-945e-398daac0176e/content. Accessed on May 15, 2024.

FAO. 2018. Poverty, reforestation, energy and climate change. PROEZA Project, Funding Proposal. FAO. Rome. https://www.greenclimate.fund/sites/default/files/document/funding-proposal-fp062-fao-paraguay.pdf. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

FAO. 2020. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020, main report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. https://www.fao.org/documents/card/en?details=ca9825en. Accessed on January 18, 2024.

FAO. 2023. Poverty, Reforestation, Energy and Climate Change Project (PROEZA), Annual Performance Review CY2022, Dated Oct 9, 2023. https://www.greenclimate.fund/sites/default/files/document/fp062-annual-performance-report-cy2022-v.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2024.

Federacion Paraguaya de Maderaros [FEPAMA]. 2022. Rentabilidad de plantaciones forestales es comparable con la ganadería, afirman. FEPAMA. Asunción, Paraguay. https://fepama.org/rentabilidad-de-plantaciones-forestales-es-comparable-con-la-ganaderia-afirman/#:~:text=El%20profesional%20agregó%20que%20la,plantaciones%20en%20pie%20de%20eucalipto. Accessed June 10, 2024.

FEPAMA. 2023. En menos de una década, Paraguay podría tener forestada más de un millón de hectáreas. FEPAMA. Asunción, Paraguay.
https://fepama.org/en-menos-de-una-decada-paraguay-podria-tener-forestada-mas-de-un-millon-de-hectareas/#:~:text=Es%20la%20primera%20vez%20en,positivo%20que%20se%20puede%20destacar. Accessed June 10, 2024.

FEPAMA. 2024. Astarte Capital y Silvipar AB cierran fondo forestal de USD 325 millones para Paraguay. Asunción, Paraguay. https://fepama.org/astarte-capital-y-silvipar-ab-cierran-fondo-forestal-de-usd-325-millones-para-paraguay/. Accessed June 10, 2024.

Flinta C. 1960. Prácticas de plantación forestal en América Latina. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). 2010. FSC-US Forest Management Standards. 2010. https://us.fsc.org/download.fsc-us-forest-management-standard-with-family-forest-indicators.96.htm. Accessed on August 14, 2023.

FSC. 2022. The FSC Interim National Standard of the Republic of Paraguay, FSC-STD-PRY-01-2022EN. https://connect.fsc.org/document-centre/documents/resource/1326. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

FSC. 2023. FSC Certificates Public Dashboard, Paraguay. https://app.powerbi.com/view?r=eyJrIjoiN2U3NGMyNWEtZTAxNS00MzVhLWExNmMtOThhZjdiYjQ4MWNkIiwidCI6IjEyNGU2OWRiLWVmNjUtNDk2Yi05NmE5LTVkNTZiZWMxZDI5MSIsImMiOjl9. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Forest Trends. 2022. Illegal deforestation and associated trade (IDAT) risk – Paraguay. https://www.forest-trends.org/idat_countries/paraguay/. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace. 2022. The art of integrity: state of voluntary carbon markets, Q3 insights briefing. Washington DC: Forest Trends Association.

Frey G. 2007. Timber investment returns in Paraguay. World Bank. Washington, DC. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270759428_Timber_investment_returns_in_Paraguay. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Green Climate Fund. n.d. FP062. Poverty, reforestation, energy and climate change project (PROEZA) https://www.greenclimate.fund/project/fp062

GTSA. 2022a. Planta de celulosa ya cuenta con licencia para producir su energía en Paraguay. Gateway to South America.https://www.gatewaytosouthamerica-newsblog.com/planta-de-celulosa-ya-cuenta-con-licencia-para-producir-su-energia-en-paraguay/?lang=es. Accessed on April 19, 2024.

GTSA. 2022b. “Investing in land in Paraguay is very profitable due to the production levels and the potential for further price increases”. Gateway to South America. https://www.gatewaytosouthamerica-newsblog.com/investing-in-land-in-paraguay-is-very-profitable-due-to-the-production-levels-and-the-potential-for-further-price-increases/#google_vignette. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Guillen J. 2022. Actualización del censo de industrias forestales. INFONA. Asunción. https://nube.infona.gov.py/index.php/s/bXZ3PeiPwBggL3L?path=%2FCENSO%20DE%20INDUSTRIAS%20FORESTALES#pdfviewer. Accessed on April 20, 2024.

INFONA. n.d.a. Portal de Inversión Forestal. https://paraguayforestal.infona.gov.py/portal/apps/sites/#/paraguay-forestal. Accessed on April 17, 2024.

INFONA. n.d.b. Portal Bosques y Uso de la Tierra https://paraguayforestal.infona.gov.py/portal/apps/sites/#/portaldebosquesyusosdelatierra. Accessed on April 17, 2024.

INFONA. 2016. Resolución INFONA no. 307/2016, por la cual se Fijan los Costos Directos de Plantaciones Forestales Ejecutados en el Marco de la Ley 536/95 “De Fomento a la Forestación y Reforestación”, para el Ejercicio Fiscal 2016. INFONA. San Lorenzo, Paraguay. https://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/par222194.pdf. Accessed May 31, 2024.

INFONA. 2018. Memorandum DAPPF No. 16/18. Informar en Relación a Memo DTIA No. 17/2018 from Ing. For. Carmelo Sosa (Chief of Dept. of Analysis of Plantation Forestry Projects) to Ing. For. Msc. Simeon T. Martínez Román (Director of the Directorate of Development for Forestry Plantations). Dated March 21, 2018. San Lorenzo, Paraguay.https://informacionpublica.paraguay.gov.py/public/13594832-Repuesta11258pdf-Repuesta11258.pdf. Accessed on April 24, 2024.

INFONA. 2021. Mapa de plantaciones forestales, Año 2021. INFONA. Paraguay. https://nube.infona.gov.py/index.php/s/xrg2qjKd4YKyS5w?path=%2F2021#pdfviewer. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

INFONA. 2022. Inversión en plantaciones forestales. https://nube.infona.gov.py/index.php/s/KWsY3gM99sE6sPJ?path=%2F2022. Accessed on April 24, 2024.

INFONA. 2023a. Nuestros Bosques: Reporte de la cobertura forestal y cambios de uso de la tierra 2020 a 2022. https://nube.infona.gov.py/index.php/s/BPdE3ijGWRnQ2aA. Accessed on August 13, 2023

INFONA. 2023b. Reporte de zonas con potencial forestal del Paraguay. https://nube.infona.gov.py/index.php/s/q8KM5EY2YPjP7CT#pdfviewer. Accessed on April 17, 2024.

INFONA. 2023c. Plan Nacional de Restauración Forestal (PNRF) (Borrador). Asunción, Paraguay. https://nube.infona.gov.py/index.php/s/g9od9DDAzzLCSZb#pdfviewer. Accessed on April 17, 2024.

INFONA. 2024. El INFONA revela datos estadísticos sobre incendios forestales durante los últimos cuatro años. https://infona.gov.py/el-infona-revela-datos-estadisticos-sobre-incendios-forestales-durante-los-ultimos-cuatro-anos/. Accessed on April 20, 2024.

Instituto Nacional Forestal. 2024. Inventario Forestal Nacional de Chile. Santiago, Chile: https://ifn.infor.cl. Accessed on January 29, 2024.

International Monetary Fund (IMF). 2023. Second review under the policy coordination instrument, request for an extension of the policy coordination instrument, modification of targets, inflation band consultation, and request of arrangement under the resilience and sustainability facility. Dated December 4, 2023. https://www.imf.org/en/Countries/PRY#. Accesed June 10, 2024.

International Railway Journal. 2022. Paraguay and Argentina reconnect rail freight networks. https://www.railjournal.com/freight/paraguay-and-argentina-reconnect-rail-freight-networks/. Accessed on February 5, 2024.

International Registry of Shipping Admin. 2023. Overview of the Paraguay shipping industry. International Registry of Shipping. https://intlreg.org/2023/02/14/overview-of-the-paraguay-shipping-industry/#:~:text=Paraguay%27s%20most%20important%20ports%20are,through%20Argentina%2C%20Uruguay%20and%20Brazil. Accessed on February 5, 2024.

International Tropical Timber Organization. 2024. Lesser Used Species. ITTO. Yokohama, Japan.http://www.tropicaltimber.info/specie/laurel-cordia-alliodora/. Accessed June 10, 2024.

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA). 2023. The Indigenous World 2023. https://www.iwgia.org/doclink/iwgia-book-the-Indigenous-world-2023-eng/eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJzdWIiOiJpd2dpYS1ib29rLXRoZS1pbmRpZ2Vub3VzLXdvcmxkLTIwMjMtZW5nIiwiaWF0IjoxNjgxNzcwMDMxLCJleHAiOjE2ODE4NTY0MzF9.PxHbwjCHHzLhC5V4CSm9QD0ZwrRgqSEZOAP38mX6h9c. Accessed on August 12, 2023.

Japan Forest Technology Association (JAFTA), Pasco International. 2002. The study on reforestation plan in the Eastern Region, The Republic of Paraguay. Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). National Forest Service (SFN) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. The

Republic of Paraguay. https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11677994_01.pdf. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Klein M. 1946. The forest resources of Paraguay – a special report. The Institute of Inter-American Affairs, Food Supply Division. https://books.google.com/books?id=OoNYAAAAMAAJ&pg=PP7&lpg=PP7&dq=morton+klein+forestry&source=bl&ots=HbsHwSjtiV&sig=ACfU3U0qu6M9FLjisyRQ4Ha7hpi-eLVtSw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjzxNbR57mAAxU4kmoFHbmSDY4Q6AF6BAgfEAM#v=onepage&q=morton%20klein%20forestry&f=false. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Korhonen J, Nepal P, Prestemon JP, Cubbage F. 2021. Projecting global and regional outlooks for planted forests under the shared socio-economic pathways. New Forests 52, 197-216 (2021). Accessed January 18, 2024. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-020-09789-z

Lopez JA, Little E Jr, Ritz G, Rombold J, Hahn W. 2002. Árboles comunes del Paraguay. Cuerpo de Paz. Asunción, Paraguay.

Lucantonio F, Sosa J, Aiello R. 2022. Breve reseña del sector de energía en Paraguay. InterAmerican Development Bank. Accessed June 10, 2024. https://doi.org/10.18235/0004321

Machado DDN, Costa EC, Guedes JVC, Barbosa LR, Martínez G, Mayorga SI, Ramos SO, Branco M, Garcia A, Vanegas-Rico JM, Jiménez-Quiroz E, Laudonia S, Novoselsky T, Hodel DR, Arakelian G, Silva H, Perini CR, Valmorbida I, Ugalde GA, & Arnemann JA. 2020. One maternal lineage leads the expansion of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the New and Old Worlds. Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 26;10(1):3487. Accessed May 18, 2024. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60236-7

Maidana R. 2017. Informe – precios rurales de referencia a Diciembre 2017. El Servicio Nacional de Catastro – Depto. De Avaluaciones. Asunción.

Mansourian S, Aquino L, Erdmann T, Pereira F. 2014. A comparison of governance challenges in forest restoration in Paraguay’s privately-owned forests and Madagascar’s Co-managed State Forests. Forests. 5. 763-783. Accessed on August 11, 2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5040763

MAPPR. n.d. Map of Paraguay. https://www.mappr.co/political-maps/paraguay-regions-map/. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería [MAG]. 2023. VI Censo Agropecuario Nacional 2022. Dirección de Censos y Estadísticas Agropecuarios (DCEA). MAG. Asunción, Paraguay. https://can2022.mag.gov.py/geoportal/VI_CENSO_AGROPECUARIO_NACIONAL_Volumen_1.pdf. Accessed June 12, 2024.

Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca. 2022. Superficie forestal de bosques plantados del Uruguay. Periodo 1975-2021. Montevideo, Uruguay: https://www.gub.uy/ministerio-ganaderia-agricultura-pesca/sites/ministerio-ganaderia-agricultura-pesca/files/2023-01/Superficie%20Plantado%20Informe%202022.pdf. Accessed May 16, 2024.

Ministerio de Economia de Argentina. 2023. Informes de cadenas de valor, forestal, papel, y muebles. Año 8 - N° 68 - junio 2023 ISSN 2525-0221. Buenos Aires, Argentina. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/sites/default/files/forestal_2023.pdf. Accessed on January 29, 2024.

Ministry of Public Works and Communication (MOPC). n.d.. Matriz energética en Paraguay. https://www.ssme.gov.py/vmme/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1628&Itemi. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

MOPC. 2019. Producción y consumo de biomasa forestal con fines energéticos en el Paraguay. ViceMinisterio de Minas y Energia. Dirección de Energias Alternativae. Banco InterAmericano de Desarrollo. San Lorenzo, Paraguay. https://www.ssme.gov.py/vmme/pdf/biomasa/base/Produc-Cons-Biomasa-Fores-fines-Energ-Py.pdf. Accessed on April 19, 2024.

MOPC. 2020. Balance Energetico Nacional 2018. En Terminos de Energia Final. Asunción, Paraguay. https://www.ssme.gov.py/vmme/pdf/balance2018/BENpy2018-Estadistico%20-%20Analitico%20V3.pdf. Accessed on June 10, 2024.

Monges E. 2017. Global timber investments template. Provided by Fred Cubbage, personal communication. Used in Cubbage et al. 2022 (above). NC State University. Raleigh, NC. USA.

Nepal P, Korhonen J, Prestemon J, Cubbage F. 2019. Projecting global planted forest area developments and the associated impacts on global forest product markets. Journal of Environmental Management. 240. 421-430. Accessed January 24, 2024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.126

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 2022. Country risk classifications of the participants to the arrangement on officially supported export credits of 21 October 2022. https://www.oecd.org/trade/topics/export-credits/documents/cre-crc-current-english.pdf. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Ortíz R, Molinas A. 2022. El mercado de productos forestales en Paraguay. Seminario virtual de actualización sober mercado y legislación forestal. Unique-Wood. Paraguay. https://www.afd.gov.py/archivos/noticias/Mercado_de_Productos_Forestales_en_Paraguay.pdf?time=1669231681765. Accessed on April 30, 2024.

Osuna M. 2024. (Land Specialist). Personal communication to Alberto Yanosky, Biodiversity Specialist, on June 18, 2024. Paraguay.

Paracel S.A. n.d. Paracel S.A.. https://Paracel S.A..com.py/en/. Accessed on April 24, 2024.

Pasten M, González V, Espínola C. n.d.. Clasificación climática del Paraguay utilizando los métodos de Köppen y Thornthwaite. http://sdi.cnc.una.py/catbib/documentos/525.pdf. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Poyry. 2021. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment. Paracel S.A., Eucalytus Plantation. Volume I: Description of proyect. Poyry Tecnologia Ltda. Sao Paulo, Brazil. https://www.jica.go.jp/Resource/english/our_work/social_environmental/id/america/paraguay/c8h0vm0000fgq2mp-att/c8h0vm0000fgq2t8.pdf. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Queiroz DL, Burckhardt D, Majer J. 2012. Integrated pest management of eucalypt psyllids (Insecta, Hemiptera, Psylloidea), integrated pest management and pest control - current and future tactics, Dr. Sonia Soloneski (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0050-8. InTech. https://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/29614/InTech-Integrated_pest_management_of_eucalypt_psyllids_insecta_hemiptera_psylloidea_.pdf. Accessed May 18, 2024.

Ramírez RF. 2017. Relatorio de impacto ambiental. Plan de manejo forestal – plantación de Eucalipto - elaboración de carbón vegetal de Eucalipto - explotación ganadera. BARCOS & RODADOS S.A. https://www.mades.gov.py/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/RIMA-1536.2017_PLAN-DE-MANEJO-FORESTAL_EXP.SEAM-10435_BARCOS-RODADOS-S.A.pdf. Accessed May 18, 2024.

REDIEX. 2021. Paraguay, land of opportunities. REDIEX. Asunción, Paraguay. https://issuu.com/opentechla/docs/presentaci_n_pa_s_ingles_2022_16_mar_2022?e=26183693/92865632. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Reliefweb. 2021. The 2019-2021 extreme drought episode in La Plata Basin. 15 October 2021. https://reliefweb.int/report/argentina/2019-2021-extreme-drought-episode-la-plata-basin. Last accessed on May 27, 2024.

República de Paraguay. 1991. Ley 117 Del 91 de Inversiones. https://es.scribd.com/document/134598980/Ley-117-Del-91-de-Inversiones#. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

República de Paraguay. 2013. Ley 4890. Derecho Real de Superficie Forestal. https://www.bacn.gov.py/leyes-paraguayas/3082/ley-n-4890-derecho-real-de-superficie-forestal. Accessed June 20, 2024.

República de Paraguay. 2018. Decreto Nº 175/2018. Paraguay. https://baselegal.com.py/docs/944d580a-8d87-11eb-990a-525400c761ca. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

S&P Global. 2022. Research update: Paraguay 'BB/B' ratings affirmed; outlook remains stable, May 18, 2022. www.spglobal.com/ratingsdirect. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

Segovia H. 2024. (Land Specialist). Personal communication to Alberto Yanosky, Biodiversity Specialist, on June 18, 2024. Paraguay.

Silva X, Roux J, Asiegbu F. 2020. Diseases of eucalypts in Paraguay and first report of Teratosphaeria zuluensis from South America. Forests 2020, 11(10), 1035; Accessed May 18, 2024. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101035

Silvapar. 2016. Derecho real de superficie forestal. http://silvapar.com/uip-cncc/2016/reunion-expo-2016/RESUMEN%20-%20Ley%20de%20Vuelo%20Forestal%20-%20Carlstein.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2024.

SILVICARBON. 2022. VCS Project Description - PARACEL S.A. ARR Carbon Forestry Project. https://registry.verra.org/app/projectDetail/VCS/3196. Accessed on November 28, 2023.

Silvipar. n.d. About Silvipar. https://www.silvipar.com/about. Accessed on August 12, 2023.

South Pole Carbon Asset Management Ltd. 2021. VCS Project Description - Afforestation of degraded grasslands in Caazapá and Guairá. https://registry.verra.org/app/projectDetail/VCS/2498. Accessed on November 28, 2023.

Swiss Carbon Value Ltda. 2023. VCS Project Description – Southern Paraguay Sustainable Afforestation Project. https://registry.verra.org/app/projectDetail/VCS/2556 Accessed on November 28, 2023.

Szulecka J, Monges E. 2017. Forest plantations in Paraguay: Historical developments and a critical diagnosis in a SWOT-AHP framework. Land Use Policy, 60, 384-394. Accessed on August 11, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.11.001

Timbertradeportal.com. 2023. US Lacey Act. https://www.timbertradeportal.com/en/p/6/us-lacey-act#:~:text=a%20ban%20on%20the%20trade,%2C%20volume%2C%20and%20value%3B%20and. Accessed on August 16, 2023.

The Global Economy.com. 2024a. Roads quality - country rankings. Source: World Economic Forum (2019). https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/roads_quality/. Accessed on February 5, 2024.

The Global Economy. 2024b. Port infrastructure quality - country rankings. Source: World Economic Forum (2019). https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/seaports_quality/. Accessed on February 5, 2024.

Tomaselli I, Vidal V. 2013. Plan estrategido para mejorar la competitividad del sector forestal de Paraguay. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Asunción, Paraguay.

Tomberlin D, Buongiorno J. 2001. Timber plantations, timber supply, and forest conservation. In: Palo M, Uusivuori J, Mery G (eds) World forests, markets, and policies, world forests volume III. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 85-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0664-4_6

Transparency International. 2023. Corruption Perceptions Index. https://www.transparency.org/en/countries/paraguay. Accessed on May 27, 2024.

United Nations. 2022. Paraguay: Alarming increase in the use of pesticides compromises human rights. https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2022/10/paraguay-alarming-increase-use-pesticides-compromises-human-rights-says-un. Accessed on August 14, 2023.

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). 2024. World Population Dashboard, Paraguay, https://www.unfpa.org/data/world-population/PY. Accessed on June 7, 2024.

United Nations Statistics Division. 2014. Country Profile: Paraguay.https://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx/_Docs/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Paraguay. Accessed on April 12, 2023.

UNDP. 2024. Paraguay: sustainable soy and beef. Global Food and Agriculture Commodity Systems. https://www.undp.org/facs/paraguay-sustainable-soy-and-beef#:~:text=With%20regards%20to%20soy%2C%20Paraguay,whopping%2018%25%20of%20its%20GDP.

UN-REDD. 2010. National Programme Document – Paraguay. UNREDD/PB5/2010/10. UN-REDD. Washington, DC.

US Department of State. 2021. 2021 Investment Climate Statements: Paraguay. https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-investment-climate-statements/paraguay/. Accessed on August 12, 2023.

US Department of State. 2022. Overseas Security Advisory Council. Paraguay Country Security Report. U.S. Department of State. https://www.osac.gov/Content/Report/421cef70-c73c-4aec-b0e0-2085ce84e3d9. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

US Department of State. 2023. 2023 Investment Climate Statements: Paraguay. https://www.state.gov/reports/2023-investment-climate-statements/paraguay/. Accessed on May 26, 2024.

Vargas A. 2021. Día de campo: potencial de la producción forestal en el Chaco Central. Paraguay.
https://cifca.agr.una.py/novedades/dia-de-campo-potencial-de-la-produccion-forestal-en-el-chaco-central/. Accessed on August 12, 2023.

Verra. 2023. https://registry.verra.org/app/search/VCS. Accessed on August 12, 2023.

World Bank. 2007. Argentina biodiversity conservation in productive forestry landscapes. Project Appraisal Document. Report No: 39628 AR. Washington, DC. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/808781468005462323/pdf/396280AR0GEFR20071001411.pdf. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

World Bank. 2020. A forest’s worth. Paraguay Country Forest Note. World Bank. Washington, DC. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/34988/A-Forest-s-Worth-Policy-options-for-a-sustainable-and-inclusive-forest-economy-in-Paraguay.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed on August 11, 2023.

World Bank. 2021. Ease of Doing Business Rank. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IC.BUS.EASE.XQ. Accessed on April 12, 2023.

World Bank. 2022. Rural population (% of total population) – Paraguay. The World Bank Data. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS?locations=PY. Accessed on June 7, 2024.

World Bank. 2023. State and trends of Carbon Pricing 2023. © http://hdl.handle.net/10986/39796 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”URI https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/39796. Accessed November 28, 2023.

World Bank. 2024a. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC. https://databank.worldbank.org/reports.aspx?source=2&country=PRY. Accessed on May 26, 2024.

World Bank. 2024b. Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) – Paraguay. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG?locations=PY. Accessed on June 7, 2024. Accessed on June 7, 2024.

World Bank. 2024c. Paraguay. https://thedocs.worldbank.org/en/doc/e408a7e21ba62d843bdd90dc37e61b57-0500032021/related/mpo-pry.pdf. Accessed on June 7, 2024.

World Bank. 2024d. The World Bank In Paraguay. Update of April 3, 2024. Asunción, Paraguay. https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/paraguay/overview. Accessed on May 26, 2024.

World Wildlife Fund. 2006. Paraguay extends forest conservation law.
https://wwf.panda.org/es/?90560/Paraguay-extends-forest-conservation-law#:~:text=The%20Upper%20Parana%20Atlantic%20Forest%20is%20part%20of%20the%20Atlantic,found%20nowhere%20else%20on%20Earth. Accessed May 19, 2024.

Yanosky A. 2024. (Biodiversity Specialist). Personal communication to Robert Davis, author, on June 19, 2024. Asunción, Paraguay.

Most read articles by the same author(s)